An abominable religion has settled among you. A man can now leave his father and his brothers. In this chapter, I will try to understand what the postcolonial literature does by theorizing the entire process of imperialization or colonization. While on the surface it might seem that postcolonial discourse would immediately align itself with postmodernism, as postmodernism highlights the value of defying established authority and the metanarratives of legitimation that had acted as philosophical supports for colonial control, this is not always the case.
Postcolonial theorists often accuse postmodernism of dispensing with several vital ideas Overview. The research aims to highlight the political changes that occur in these novels and the point of view and narration techniques.
Moreover, it will address the following key issues in postcolonial theory; politics, religious radicalization jihad , nationalism, attitude to the West, globalization. The first chapter will describe African American literature and the role of race and gender. The second chapter will explain postcolonial and gender theory, which can be used to analyse race and gender respectively. The third chapter will apply these theories to analyse Americanah. African American literature has been defined in various ways.
Besides, since she is focusing on women in the colonial and postcolonial setting trying to foreground their subjugation, utilizing ideas proposed by Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak and Chandra Talpade Mohanty as pioneers of postcolonial feminism are helpful in coming to the desired conclusion in this thesis.
Two exquisitely written short stories published during the tumultuous postcolonial period of the late s' and early 's, Hanif Kureishi's My Son the Fanatic and Amy Tan's Two Kinds, harness the provocative power of prose to explore the quintessentially modern cultural theme of dual and transitional identity.
I have been widely applying this criticism to many literary texts and artworks. Postcolonial criticism is still existing in the world, keep making impact to authors and artists, even to the whole human society. Postcolonial Criticism refers to individual members of specific populations to develop their own body of criticism on the history, traditions, and interpretation of their own literature. Its truth is not like the canons of orthodoxy or the irrationality of prejudice and superstition.
It begins as an adventure in self-discovery and ends in wisdom and humane conscience. Racial discrimination tainted both eras portrayed in the British morale of white supremacy over non-European counties unfolded. Heart of Darkness exemplifies early modernism in the British explorers viewed African natives of the Congo as incapable of human equality due to perceived uncivilized savagery.
Personal interaction. When I perform, the land is within me. In Aboriginal beliefs, the land forms a dynamic, inseparable relationship with the people. For Aboriginal people, the land is an "ultimate source of knowledge and creativity" Daes 7.
It is an entity or embodiment fundamental to Indigenous knowledge and cultural life. You can't separate them. The land is the giver of life. It is our mother," as Boori Pryor remarks 6.
The personification of the land as part of Aboriginal life and culture accentuates its central importance throughout Indigenous history. In the spiritual and religious sense, the land forms a tangible relationship with Aboriginal Dreaming, 4 as a home to ancestral spirits and a symbol for the continuation of life. The places that are associated with the Dreaming or certain rituals are regarded as sacred sites, including totemic places, the adjacent objects and geographical features, such as Dreaming tracks, ceremonial venues for men's or women's business, initiation places, ancestral pathways, trees, waters, food gathering places, and burials.
By worshiping and maintaining the bonds with these sites, Aboriginal people connect to their ancestors and spirituality. In the protracted struggles to reclaim ancestral land, Aboriginal people have sought to re-establish their traditional bonds with country. For them, this is a process of searching for "routes," not necessarily "a return to roots" Hall ; see also Clifford Bob Hodge and Vijay Mishra point out that Aboriginal people in northern and central Australia seek to maintain their traditional life "as close to their traditional territories as is now possible"; whereas for many Aboriginal people residing in the southern cities, "the direct link with a specific piece of country is no longer viable" The idea of place-boundedness not only may disunite the people who have settled in a new place and make them feel alienated from the place where they live now, but also would lend power to an essentialist view that urban Aboriginal people are less "authentic.
But there is still a continuity between traditional and contemporary forms of cultural expression of this theme amongst Aborigines. Aboriginal people suffered from dispossession and displacement to varying extent during colonial history.
But it is necessary to see that the continuity of Aboriginal cultures enables them to maintain the traditional bonds with the land through various cultural expressions. This reconnection is not always directed to their original country, but links to the places that can be identified as "home" again.
The theme of Aboriginal country is evident in the postcolonial narratives of children's books. But how do they inform young readers of the historical and contemporary tensions between Aboriginal people and white settlers? What kind of strategies and difficulties to re-establish Aboriginal custodianship do they represent?
To answer these questions, the following section will consider Kate Constable's time-travel fiction Crow Country , which exemplifies critical issues concerning Aboriginal land interests and seeks to redress past injustice figuratively. The Crow is the totem of this country and messenger of Aboriginal ancestral spirits.
At the beginning of the story, the Crow addresses cultural amnesia in Australian settler society and stresses the importance of maintaining the continuity of Aboriginal culture: "Who tells Crow's stories now? Where are the dreams when the dreamers are gone? Where are the stories when no one remembers? Crow remembers. The plot tells the forgotten story of a fictional murder that took place in the s, in which the rich pastoralist Mr Mortlock killed the Aboriginal stockman Jimmy Raven, due to an argument over the construction of a dam in Mr Mortlock's property.
Jimmy was an Aboriginal custodian. He objected to this project because the dam would jeopardize the sacred place where Aboriginal people gathered and performed rituals. Jimmy and Mr Mortlock, together with another white man Clarry, served in the army during World War I and had formed a deep friendship with each other.
But after the murder, Clarry helped Mr Mortlock to cover it up. Another thread is formed through the contemporary young characters Sadie Clarry's great granddaughter , Lachie Mr Mortlock's great grandson and the Aboriginal boy Walter. The two threads are linked by the protagonist Sadie who, under the guidance of the Crow, stumbles back in time and witnesses the un-resolved crime.
She completes the Crow's mission by revealing the historical injustice and restoring the lost sacred object once held by Jimmy. By unfolding the tension between building a dam and preserving the sacred site, the novel reflects the conflicting interests of white settlers and Aboriginal traditional landowners in Australian pastoralist history.
The Mortlocks' large-acre property is located near Lake Boort. Geographically this region is part of the Murray-Darling Basin, a major pastoral area in Australia. Historically, due to low rainfall and the irregular flow of rivers in the Murray-Darling Basin, an intensive irrigation system was built to expand agricultural and pastoral development at the turn of the twentieth century Goodall , "Telling Country" However, the development of the irrigation system met with fierce opposition from Aboriginal traditional landowners, for many reasons: the source of water, such as waterholes, was of cultural significance in Aboriginal knowledge system; the changed watercourses and underground water levels not only severely affected Aboriginal people who lived along the rivers, but also jeopardized their important cultural and ritual sites and threatened the transmission of Aboriginal traditional culture; moreover, compounded by years of overgrazing in this region, the environmental deterioration made it difficult for Aboriginal people to maintain their traditional ways of life ibid.
The pastoral landscape has been a powerful evocation of Australian nationhood since the nineteenth century. By the s, the pastoral imagery of flocks of sheep in rural settings had gradually replaced the bush legend, signifying a new Australia in the national historiography D.
In contrast to the wild and unknown bush, the rural or pastoral landscape was believed to be civilized, pacified and prosperous, which provided "the best evidence of successful settlement" ibid.
The pastoralists sought to celebrate their toil in a pastoral nation. However, conflicts led by the disparate interests between pastoralists and Aboriginal groups have remained ever since European settlement.
Lachie argues with Walter, defending his family's established relations with the property: "I was born here," he said to Walter. Who do you reckon this land belongs to? Not to you, mate. There's none of your people left round here. They're gone. Moreover, his view insists that only those who originate from here are entitled to the land rights, expressing a prevalent idea of place-boundedness which excludes the dispersed Aboriginal descendants like Walter from reclaiming their rights to the land.
With a focus on the characterization of Jimmy, the novel demonstrates the efforts of traditional landowners to maintain their contact with country under colonial control in Australian pastoral history. Jimmy is portrayed as an Aboriginal "clever man"-the custodian or deputy of Aboriginal traditional landowners Meanwhile, he is also "a good man, a good worker" for Mr Mortlock Jimmy's double role does not mean a mitigation of the historical and racial confrontation between traditional landowners and white pastoralists.
Rather, it captures the uneven power relation between these two groups during the post-contact history. Jimmy's job as a worker, on the one hand, reflects the difficulty of Aboriginal people to continue living in traditional ways after being dispossessed and displaced.
On the other, as white settlers gained the dominant control on economic and social fronts, it became a strategic expediency for Aboriginal labourers to work on the property, so that they could support themselves without relying solely on mission charity and seek possible ways to maintain their traditional contact with the land i.
In the novel, this vexed relationship between Aboriginal traditional landowners and white pastoralists is characterized by both conflict and co-existence, which I will return to shortly. The complexity in the characterization of Jimmy is not only seen from his double role as both the Aboriginal custodian and the stockman on Mr Mortlock's property, but is also revealed from another detail: when serving in the army during WWI, Jimmy saved Clarry's life; and Jimmy, Clarry and Mr Mortlock became best mates on the battlefield in France.
However, the relatively equal relationship as comrade-in-arms was dissolved into uneven racial dichotomy when they returned to Australia. Jimmy's devotion in war was faded into oblivion after the war and his name was not able to enter on the war memorial without Clarry's insistence and Mr Mortlock's support. This captures the racial discrimination entrenched in Australian mainstream white society.
Jimmy's patriotism in fighting for the country of Australia during the wartime could possibly be connected to his responsibility and loyalty to the same, yet however contested, "country" as an Aboriginal custodian. Nevertheless, racial dominance and split interests in the use of land ultimately render the tragic confrontation between Mr Mortlock and Jimmy inevitable.
As the novel unfolds, Mr Mortlock insists on the plan for building a dam over an Aboriginal sacred site, regardless of Jimmy's strong objections. Based on the mateship that he built up with Clarry during the wartime, Jimmy approaches Clarry first and anticipates that Clarry could join him to convince Mr Mortlock to give up the plan. Jimmy explains to Clarry the importance of the sacred site: "It's like this, see. Then he said, "Suppose you're given something to look after. Something precious, something -" He glanced across at Dad [Clarry].
And suppose you knew that a person was planning to do something that would destroy that sacred thing. What would you do? In doing so, Jimmy seeks white alliance to protect Aboriginal land interests while he petitions Mr Mortlock. Different from the violent confrontation or "guerrilla tactics" during the contact history, to seek alliance with and to petition white people for land preservation, as shown in this episode, manifests an alternative approach by Aboriginal traditional landowners to cope with the changed power relations see Goodall , "New South Wales" The novel's climax is the intense argument between Jimmy and Mr Mortlock.
Jimmy speaks out about his responsibility to protect the Aboriginal sacred site, when confronting Mr Mortlock. Mustn't do this, mustn't do that! You'd think it was his own damn land! But this is my business. Note that Jimmy undertakes the traditional custodianship, but he was not born to this country. As he reveals elsewhere, "My country is way down south by the sea [ But I know a special place when I see it.
There's a special place in that valley. I know it. The people who belong to that place, they're not here to protect it, so I got to do it. He is not an Aboriginal descendent from this place, but he is committed to this new country where he lives now, by forming a new kinship relationship and taking care of this country as his "business" Jimmy's example challenges the dominant assumption of seeing the newly formed connection with another country as "inauthentic" or "fabricated.
Aboriginal kinship is an extended family network in a traditional community, different from the vertical family tree commonly seen in European genealogy Goodall, "Telling Country" Moreover, the kinship system is not necessarily formed through biological relations because one can be the descendent of a particular sacred object or place. The custodian for a particular country does not necessarily originate from that place, but he needs to acquire sufficient knowledge of the land and go through rigorous ritual procedures to establish the loyalty with that particular country.
Only in this way can he be capable and responsible for the rights conferred by the land and the obligations derived from the land. In this sense through the portrayal of Jimmy, an Aboriginal custodian who commits himself to a new country, this novel informs young readers of Aboriginal custodianship and kinship system, which are often misunderstood and denigrated. Aboriginal connectedness to country is governed by the Law, observed by generations of Aboriginal people.
In the novel, the recurring reference to the Law transmits a strong sense of restoring justice for the loss of Aboriginal life and recognizing the interests of traditional landowners. Erikson described those going through an identity crisis as exhibiting confusion. They often seem to have no idea who or what they are, where they belong or where they want to go.
They may withdraw from normal life, not taking action or acting as they usually would at work, in their marriage or at school. They may even turn to negative activities, such as crime or drugs, as a way of dealing with identity crisis. To someone having an identity crisis, it is more acceptable to them to have a negative identity than none at all.
Erikson felt that peers have a strong impact on the development of ego identity during adolescence. He believed that association with negative groups such as cults or fanatics could actually redistrict the developing ego during this fragile time. The basic strength that Erikson found should develop during adolescence is fidelity, which only emerges from a cohesive ego identity. Erikson described identity as "a subjective sense as well as an observable quality of personal sameness and continuity, paired with some belief in the sameness and continuity of some shared world image.
As a quality of unself-conscious living, this can be gloriously obvious in a young person who has found himself as he has found his communality. In him we see emerge a unique unification of what is irreversibly given—that is, body type and temperament, giftedness and vulnerability, infantile models and acquired ideals—with the open choices provided in available roles, occupational possibilities, values offered, mentors met, friendships made, and first sexual encounters. We will consider Africa and the Caribbean as a region.
Nowadays there are a lot emerging literatures in a lot of Pacific islands that are getting their independence and as they get their independence they start writing literature.
The Asiam Rim are a lot of colonial countries islands in Asia, they are too many and very small. These countries belonged to the British Empire and in 's's they got their independence and they got their own identity.
Getting independence means that you are conscious, or have a notion of your own identity, different from that of the metropoli. That what we see in literature the process is reflected in and at the same time impulsed by writing.
The literature written in the colonial period is called Colonial Literature, and when the countries got the independence it is called Post-Colonial Literature. Post-Colonial Literature reflects a way of life and talks about customs, attitudes, religion, and legends. So it inscribes a culture in a frame. That is, an affirmation of their identity. It is called Local Colour; it is mostly a realistic literature that gives an account of the real country, it is supposed to mimic reality.In African literature today, including that of Nigeria, there seems to be an identity crisis for women as we perceive a disjuncture between the typical portrayal of women especially in maleauthored literatures as weak and inconsequential in the scheme of things and the current emergence of a new breed of women from all over the continent. In the invaded colonies British people went there to take advantage of the country and then leave, after having the place under British role and making it work for British sake and profit. This text dominates the theme of identity that breaks down colonial constructs of Western dominance over Eastern culture, hence Salman Rushdie position as a prominent Anglo-Indian postcolonial writer. This time they took the word from an Aboriginal language of northern Australia. Their action also becomes a starting point of a deeper understanding and friendship among the three teenagers who political and the social, and an. He objected to this project because the dam would agreement of the Australian government for ten years between and. The articulation of Aboriginal relationships to country in this regard not only contests the Eurocentric dominance of space and reflects on the continuing impact of colonization in Australian settler society, but also values Aboriginal living experiences on their traditional land and Coreservicesuiagent process of photosynthesis various modes of connection between contemporary Aboriginal descent and this country.
But the collective action taken by the three teenagers escapes the surveillance of Lachie's father and signifies a hope of setting up a reconciliatory space for the deceased Jimmy and Mr Mortlock who were both mates and enemies. What kind of strategies and difficulties to re-establish Aboriginal custodianship do they represent? Glissant for his part in Caribbean Discourse: Selected Essays
The theme of Aboriginal country is evident in the postcolonial narratives of children's books. Marx said it was the globalisation of capitalism. With a focus on the characterization of Jimmy, the novel demonstrates the efforts of traditional landowners to maintain their contact with country under colonial control in Australian pastoral history. Their struggles to reclaim the ancestral land remain unfinished. This cultural enrichment for both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal child readers can thus nurture the possibility of reconciliation in future.
This ensued a postcolonial environment that displayed a culture that was often schizophrenic.
On the other, as white settlers gained the dominant control on economic and social fronts, it became a strategic expediency for Aboriginal labourers to work on the property, so that they could support themselves without relying solely on mission charity and seek possible ways to maintain their traditional contact with the land i. Perspectives on Nigerian Literature to the Present. Within this framework, many female authors give agency to the once silenced female voice of the colonized. With the advent of the printing press , newspapers and magazines helped people across geographical barriers identify with a shared national community.
He objected to this project because the dam would jeopardize the sacred place where Aboriginal people gathered and performed rituals. In contrast to the wild and unknown bush, the rural or pastoral landscape was believed to be civilized, pacified and prosperous, which provided "the best evidence of successful settlement" ibid. The basic strength that Erikson found should develop during adolescence is fidelity, which only emerges from a cohesive ego identity. In the spiritual and religious sense, the land forms a tangible relationship with Aboriginal Dreaming, 4 as a home to ancestral spirits and a symbol for the continuation of life. In the novel the protagonist's sense of place-relation. The quest for identity in Indo-English writing has emerged as a recurrent theme, as it is in much of modern literature Pathak preface.
The experience of being uprooted and annihilated tickles the nerves of almost all the intellectuals and their works contextualizes their experience of displacement and exile precisely. When I perform, the land is within me. But their struggles for the lost homelands did not cease. Nourishing Terrains 7 Aboriginal people hold a distinct relationship with their land and country.
There is no doubt about the significance of land for Aboriginal people. In this context, the Wik People v. Loomba gives an overall sense of the field, and the theoretical relationships between colonialism and Postcolonialism. Postcolonial fiction writers deal with the traditional colonial discourse , either by modifying or by subverting it, or both. The characterization of Lachie's father represents an entrenched racial ideology that refuses to acknowledge historical wrongs.
The experience of being uprooted and annihilated tickles the nerves of almost all the intellectuals and their works contextualizes their experience of displacement and exile precisely. These are some crucial questions whose answers were supposed to limit and define the scope of "literature".
Free postcolonial literature essays and papersFaber caribbean series, with a new note by the author and an essay by kenneth. Within this framework, many female authors give agency to the once silenced female voice of the colonized. Postcolonial theory: a critical introduction, decolonizePlace and displacement are always featured in post-colonial writings, whether its words 10 pages essay in english literature the sense of displacement may have derived from migration, enslavement or even. To answer these questions, the following section will consider Kate Constable's time-travel fiction Crow Country , which exemplifies critical issues concerning Aboriginal land interests and seeks to redress past injustice figuratively.
Morning Yet on Creation Day. But the collective action taken by the three teenagers escapes the surveillance of Lachie's father and signifies a hope of setting up a reconciliatory space for the deceased Jimmy and Mr Mortlock who were both mates and enemies. While exposing the injustice related to Aboriginal land rights in history, Crow Country pins the hope of racial reconciliation on the younger generation. Maralinga was a British nuclear testing site with the agreement of the Australian government for ten years between and Jimmy explains to Clarry the importance of the sacred site: "It's like this, see.
Aboriginal traditional land usually refers to homelands or traditional territories that Aboriginal people of various language groups inherit from their ancestors and that have enabled them to carry on traditional ways of life for centuries. The novel begins with two Aboriginal men watching the arrival of the First Fleet at Sydney Harbour on 26 January As known, literary criticism is a sort of mental exercise of evaluating, classifying, analyzing, interpreting, judging, and valuing the literary art.
In The Road to Botany Bay , Paul Carter traces the tradition of naming in colonial Australia and describes the engagement of the British settlers who were "more than ever obliged to settle the country rhetorically [ The double resonance of country reveals the ambivalence at the core of Australian literary geography. He believed that association with negative groups such as cults or fanatics could actually redistrict the developing ego during this fragile time. Doreen Massey and Pat Jess. In the spiritual and religious sense, the land forms a tangible relationship with Aboriginal Dreaming, 4 as a home to ancestral spirits and a symbol for the continuation of life. And suppose you knew that a person was planning to do something that would destroy that sacred thing.