There are two main sources of innovation technology: internal research and development or independent innovation. Second, external introduction, that is, technology introduction. If developing countries through their own independent research and development for the technology, the costs will much higher than the introduction of other ready-made similar technology .
Technological innovation divides innovation modes into three types: independent innovation, imitation innovation and cooperative innovation . The meaning of independent innovation is to complete the whole process of technological innovation mainly by relying on the strength of the enterprise itself. Cooperative innovation refers to the joint efforts of different enterprises and actors for a certain technological innovation.
Many scholars have defined the meaning of imitation innovation, imitation innovation is defined as: the enterprise which is enticed by multiple factors, especially the fact that pioneering innovators is profitable, then they through learning, imitation, take the pioneering experience, methods of innovators and lesson, in the later period of innovation chain invest a lot of talented personnel, financial and material resources, get the competitive advantage of the respect such as quality, price and cost, gradually taking the leading innovator in the market, obtain certain economic benefits of innovation .
Someone argue that imitation innovation refers to the innovators learn innovative thinking, experience and behavior, to buy or to decipher the core technology and the technical secret, to improve the technology . This behavior is on the basis of the market characteristics and trends, then further the development of innovation.
The other one believed that imitation innovation is essentially an innovation behavior . Rather than completely copy, its essence is a kind of innovation behavior. In recent years, the documents of the relevant domestic imitation innovation mainly focus on the problem between imitation innovation and intellectual property, the relationship between imitation innovation and independent innovation and the relationship between imitation innovation and enterprise performance.
Research on Imitation Innovation and Intellectual Property Rights As to whether copycat innovation can obtain intellectual property rights, some scholars have proposed that copycat innovation may also generate independent intellectual property rights .
The most typical is Japan, which, in fact, has improved its technological level to become a world economic power through imitation and innovation. Some scholars consider the protection of intellectual property rights on the relationship between the independent innovation and imitation abroad late-development countries, analyzed the late-development countries with leading technology gap and imitation ability influence on the protection of intellectual property rights system arrangement, think the intellectual property rights to restrict imitation innovation .
The utility model is a practical new technical scheme for the shape, structure or combination of products, and a new combination of existing technical elements. After two patents would not require be substantial changes in the technical aspects, but they can also form the intellectual property rights, and the two patents in the market competition is also very meaningful, many products in the market competition is mainly in the two level .
Of existing intellectual property system in China as the way to mimic made relevant provisions: first, the technology import, the right holder has obtained assignment or licensing of intellectual property rights object of imitation. Second, through the reverse engineering way of imitation, such as starting from foreign products, product decomposition analysis and comprehensive research.
Fourth, we should imitate intellectual products that are not protected by intellectual property law. Fifth, the use of intellectual property time and regional imitation.
Sixth, the use of a loophole in the patent claims and the description of text to imitate, the above are just imitate, does not constitute infringement, for in the proper category imitation innovation and get results is should be protected by intellectual property rights to explain . Enterprises generally ignore long-term, platform and frontier technology research and development, and continue to rely on imported technology and imported parts.
On this basis, such innovation is mainly derivative technology innovation on the basis of the introduction platform. Only a few enterprise groups can construct technical barriers and make breakthroughs in platform technology and frontier technology. The result of derivative innovation is patents based on utility models and designs, while the proportion of invention patents that constitute the most technical barriers is extremely low. Research on the Relationship between Imitation Innovation and Independent Innovation Guo believed that countries have a better understanding of their own actual development situation and needs, and the technology formed by independent innovation will be more closely linked to the actual needs of their own production .
Meanwhile, illumination is nearing him in the shape of a little old white bull-terrier of uncertain parentage, with one ear, and a scar on his neck, and depravity in the very lift of his stumped tail. If as an absolute being he was perfect, how did he remain perfect when he became a relative being? But they may well have worked in the same direction. But I deeply envy their barbarity, and curse the cultivation which has herded me together with believing missionaries, idealist, materialist, and positivist philosophers, into the narrow fold of the sultry and disgusting apprehensible world.
But we are without hope. Lenormant, while endorsing this view, says that anciently, as in the present day, there was an anthropological distinction between the Hamites and the Shemites, which he accounts for by supposing the former to have become intermixed with a dark or black race, which they found already established in the country to which they spread, while the Shemites, who stayed behind, preserved the purity of the white race.
It is the famous cream or fawn-coloured horse, which, of all the creatures that ever were painted, is surely one of the most beautiful.
This is strange, but so it is. The Duchess of Portsmouth, in her helmet and plumes, looks quite like a heroine of romance or modern Amazon; but for an air of easy assurance, inviting admiration, and alarmed at nothing but being thought coy, commend us to my lady——above, in the sky-blue drapery, thrown carelessly across her shoulders!
In one survey of clients who had received both telephone-based and in-person counseling, 96 percent stated they would be willing to seek telephone-based services again; by comparison, only 63 percent said they would be willing to use in-person services again Reese et al. Video conferencing, which provides both audio and video, has been used in a variety of behavioral health settings, usually to provide what would otherwise be an in-person service to clients who are not able to reach the provider's location.
The review is focused on interactive video conferencing because reviewers found that this technology had the largest research base in support of its use of any of the technologies they considered. Backhaus et al. They concluded that: This was a feasible approach to providing therapy.
Therapists were able to develop a therapeutic alliance using this technology although that might be limited to one-on-one therapy, as studies involving group and family therapy found some problems in this area. Most users were satisfied with this method of delivery and reported a level of satisfaction comparable with that reported by clients receiving in-person therapy, and the major sources of dissatisfaction were technical difficulties.
Clients using video conferencing had similar levels of retention and showed similar levels of clinical improvement to those receiving in-person treatments, with some differences depending on the specific disorder being treated e. Although they found the research insufficient to draw a strong conclusion, the data that were available indicated that this approach was about as effective as in-person services and was an appropriate option, especially with clients who had difficulties accessing in-person services.
Richardson, Frueh, Grubaugh, Egede, and Elhai also reviewed literature on the use of video conferencing for behavioral health. They summarized earlier literature, as presented in older literature reviews, which consisted mainly of case studies, program descriptions, and anecdotal support for the use of video conferencing technology.
Taken together, the literature does provide strong support for the acceptability to clients of such services and the reliability of assessments conducted using such technology. In the literature published since , they found further support for those claims, and some studies that indicated that video conferencing interventions were superior to no treatment or a reduced level of in-person services. They also reviewed three studies that compared video conferencing interventions with in-person treatment and did not find any significant differences in outcomes for participants in the two groups, with both groups experiencing improvements.
These three studies involved relatively brief interventions, and the authors of the largest of them O'Reilly et al. The authors also observed a number of methodological problems with many of the studies of video conferencing interventions and noted that many counselors remain wary of trying such interventions in spite of research suggesting their effectiveness.
These reviewers also found that research generally indicated that video conferencing was cost-effective relative to in-person treatment, especially when costs related to travel and expenses for counselors were taken into account.
Norman reviewed 72 articles concerning video conferencing, with a focus on how well this technology might be adapted in the United Kingdom, and concluded that it appeared to be an effective way to deliver counseling services and was promising for clients living in rural areas.
The author also concluded that although some early research did not find video conferencing to be cost-effective, most studies did find it to be so, and current developments in technology were likely to increase its cost-effectiveness.
More recent data from the U. Department of Veterans Affairs VA confirmed that video conferencing interventions can aid healthcare systems in cutting overall costs.
An evaluation of telemental health services i. For example, Hailey et al. They also observed methodological problems with much of the research involving video conferencing.
A review by Simpson focused on the use of video conferencing to conduct psychotherapy and also observed a lack of rigor in most of the research. More recently, Kramer et al. Factors such as bandwidth, image resolution, and display size may affect clients' and counselors' experiences with video conferencing ATA, There is some research indicating that at least one of these factors i.
Other research indicates that certain aspects of assessment e. Maheu et al. Some counselors are using publicly available video conferencing software such as Skype, rather than professional video conferencing software, to communicate with clients. Morgan and Polowy concluded that it can be difficult to protect and ensure the confidentiality of clients' communications over Skype. A variety of professional programs are available for counselors to conduct this type of therapy, and such programs may be more appropriate.
As noted, video conferencing has been shown in a number of studies to be an effective technology for conducting clinical interviews and other assessments ATA, ; Richardson et al. Specific populations that have had success using this type of technology include rural residents of nursing homes Rabinowitz et al.
For example, in a Canadian study, Germain, Marchand, Bouchard, Guay, and Drouin found that ratings of the strength of therapeutic alliances for clients with PTSD did not differ significantly between clients treated via video conferencing and those treated in person.
Most therapists did believe that a strong therapeutic relationship could be developed in this medium, and some observed that the alliances they developed were even stronger than they might have been if the therapy had been conducted in person.
Another potential concern with video conferencing is whether or not interventions developed for delivery in person can be adapted to this medium. Although research is limited, Morland et al. Patient-rated alliance is also a significant factor to consider, and although some studies have found patient-rated alliance to be a positive predictor of favorable outcomes, the complex combinations of patient ratings, therapist ratings, and particular conditions can yield results that are challenging to interpret Huppert et al.
However, text-based interventions are discussed in a separate section of this literature review. Online interventions can also be used to improve specific areas of functioning for people with mental illness. For example, van der Zanden, Speetjens, Arntz, and Onrust reported on an online course in the Netherlands to teach parenting skills to parents with mental illness.
Although the dropout rate in the pilot study was high only 58 percent completed the posttreatment assessment , those who did complete the intervention had significant improvements in parenting skills and parental competence. Barak et al. Of the interventions included in that meta-analysis, those using CBT appeared to be the most effective compared with those using psychoeducational or purely behavioral approaches.
The authors also found that there was a significantly greater effect size for interventions that were delivered individually compared with a group therapy format and that interventions appeared to be more effective for clients ages 19 to 39 compared with those who were 40 or older.
However, a later review by Hanley and Reynolds , which focused on text-based online therapy only see discussion later in this section , cautioned that Barak and colleagues' conclusions on the greater effectiveness of CBT interventions delivered online reflected a more general bias in research toward more technical and less relational interventions as the former are easier to research.
Similarly, a review of computerized CBT interventions by Green and Iverson found good evidence to support the use of such interventions for anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, eating disorders, smoking cessation, and problem drinking. The authors also noted that although data are limited, the available research indicates that these interventions will perform as well in community settings as they do in research trials.
Another review by Kiluk et al. The authors found that computer-assisted interventions were more effective than waitlist controls in 88 percent of the studies, more effective than placebo conditions in 65 percent of the studies, and more effective than active control conditions in 48 percent of the studies.
The authors did not find any significant differences in effectiveness across four different categories of target problems depression, anxiety, nicotine dependence, and substance use disorders. Studies that used worse methodologies were significantly more likely to find computerized interventions more effective than control conditions than studies that used better methodologies.
In Kiluk and colleagues' review, each of the 75 studies was rated according to how well it met 14 different criteria of methodological soundness. Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce. A Australia Journal Basic and Applied Science, 9 2 : The role of contextual marketing offer in Mobile commerce acceptance: comparison between Mobile Commerce users and nonusers.
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Information Systems Research, 11 4 , Management Science , 46 2 , MIS Quarterly , MIS Quarterly, 27,Figure 5. The preaching between the imitation innovation and independent political is the different way of professional, independent innovation model in terms of its breath intention is to show the enterprise through my own efforts and exploration technology breakthrough, slowly for the core technology usage on its own . Vertical 7.
Venkatesh et al. Not much research has evaluated Web-based text communications in behavioral health services, especially as stand-alone interventions. Rather than completely copy, its essence is a kind of innovation behavior. This section introduces these technologies, presents basic findings about their use and effectiveness drawing on other reviews when available , and also highlights interventions that can be used to address multiple substance use and mental disorders as opposed to interventions directed at a single disorder or group of disorders, such as anxiety disorders. The VA has successfully instituted a number of services for veterans living in rural areas.
Brouwer et al. It is not concerned with most other uses of new technologies e. Thus a kind of physical sympathy enters into the feeling of grace. First modified version of Technology Acceptance Model TAM Davis, Bogozzi and Warshaw, The final version of Technology Acceptance Model was formed by Venkatesh and Davis as shown in Figure 7 after the main finding of both perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use were found to have a direct influence on behaviour intention, thus eliminating the need for the attitude construct. Figure 5. Even though TAM has been tested widely with different samples in different situations and proved to be valid and reliable model explaining information system acceptance and use Mathieson, ; Davis and Venkatesh, , , many extensions to the TAM have been proposed and tested e.
Women may also benefit more than men do from some Web-based interventions. People with certain personality disorders may also fare better with in-person treatment than with treatment delivered via communication technologies. The literature reviews share the difference of technology adoption models and theories with different theoretical insights, research problems, variables, and measurements. Although technology-assisted care TAC provides a number of opportunities to enhance behavioral health services Eonta et al. We know the kind of answer to be expected and the reasons which would serve to determine it, if they were attainable.
Although the literature is not much, but the existing literature has shown that under the condition of environmental uncertainty, fuzzy, imitators in imitation of leader core advantage, on the basis of improvement, innovation, helps to mimic beyond leader, gain a competitive advantage  , at the same time, the imitation innovation as one of the innovation mode  , is the source of enterprise innovation. Boschen and Casey reviewed pre literature on the use of mobile devices in psychotherapy.