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Sci China Mater , — Appl Catal B: Environ , — — Wang et al. Huang et al. The hydrothermal derived SrTiO3 exhibited excellent photocatalytic efficiency on crystal violet. Dong et al. Zheng et al. Wu et al. Xu et al. Yue et al.
Sulaeman et al. Yang et al. Bai et al. Sun et al. The results above show that pure phase SrTiO3 nanostructured materials can be obtained by a hydrothermal method either at higher temperature above C or with alkali or the both. In this paper, SrTiO3 NPs with homogeneous and small nanoparticle size, high surface area, and strong light absorption property were synthesized by a facile and environmental-friendly hydrothermal method using tetrabutyltitanate, strontium oxide, and ethanolamine as precursors without alkali as mineralizer.
In addition, the transient photocurrent response, photocatalytic activity, and stability of the as-synthesized SrTiO3 NPs on the photodegradation of methyl orange were also determined. All the chemicals were analytical grade and used as received. Ultrapure water with the electrical resistivity of After that, 18 mL of ultrapure water was added into the mixed solution under magnetic stirring for 10 min. Finally, the Teflon-liner contained Sr-Ti-O mixed solution was sealed in the stainless steel autoclave and transferred in a muffle furnace for hydrothermal treatment at C for 36 h.
After cooling down to room temperature, the polyhedral shape like SrTiO3 nanoparticles were collected via centrifugation, and washed thoroughly with absolute ethanol and ultrapure water alternately.
The obtained products were dried in a vacuum oven at 70 C overnight. In order to investigate the influence of hydrothermal synthesis temperature on the properties i. For the TEM and HRTEM measurements, one drop of the alcoholic redisposed suspension of the samples was placed on a carbon-coated copper grid and allowed to dry in air.
The specific surface area of the samples was measured on a model 3HPM1 automatic system Beishide Co. The working electrodes were prepared as follows: mg of the sample was dispersed into a mixture of 2.
A cooling water jacket was equipped around light source to retain reaction temperature at 25 C. At a given irradiation time interval of 30 min, 3 mL of the dispersion was extracted and centrifuged. The photocatalytic reusability was evaluated by MO removal. In the end of every experimental run, an appropriate concentrated MO solution 3 x M was injected into the reactor to reach the original concentration and volume as the first cycle.
After min of adsorption and min of photocatalytic process, the next experiment cycle began. This means that a higher hydrothermal treatment temperature equal to or over C results in the formation of impurity and is not beneficial to obtain pure phase SrTiO3 in the synthesis procedure. The crystallite sizes of pure phase SrTiO3 NPs hydrothermally synthesized at various temperatures are calculated using the Scherrer formula, i.
A small value of FWHM implies a high crystallinity of the sample. The calculated average crystallite sizes are It is shown that as the hydrothermal temperature varies, the average crystallite size of the as-synthesized SrTiO3 NPs decreases firstly, reaches the minimum size at C, and then increases. However, there is still some difference in the matrix particle size and shape among the four samples. In Fig. As the hydrothermal temperature increases to C, the homogeneous polyhedral SrTiO3 NPs without any amorphous phase and finer crystal nucleuses appear see Fig.
As the temperature further increases to C , clear edges of the irregular growing particles appear and their sizes are apparently greater than that of the matrix particles, resulting in a heterogeneous microstructure see Fig.
It is indicated that the average particle size of the as-synthesized SrTiO3 decreases firstly and then increases as the hydrothermal temperature increases gradually.
The change tendency is similar with the calculated results through Scherrer formula according to the XRD patterns. The electron diffraction pattern with lattice indices see Fig. Moreover, during the hydrothermal reaction, monodispersed primary particles are formed and connect with each other to produce a porous structure see Figs.
These results confirm that SrTiO3 NPs with narrow pore size can be obtained at a lower hydrothermal temperature of C without alkali. In a relative pressure range of 0. The BJH pore size distribution analysis see inset in Fig.
Moreover, the pore volume and average Fig. Relative pressure plpa Hydrothermal temperature "C Fig. This result shows that the sample STO is more appropriate to be used for the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange due to its greater SSA and porous structure. Clearly, all the samples display the similar optical absorption at nm, which is assigned to the intrinsic band gap adsorption of SrTiO3.
This indicates that the sample ST possesses the maximum absorbance, suggesting that the sample ST has the optimum photocatalytic activity. Eg of the as-synthesized SrTiO3 is determined by the interception of the straight line fitted through the low energy side of the curve see Fig. The band gaps of the SrTiO3 samples are 3.
The results indicate that Eg of the SrTiO3 sample decreases slightly as the temperature increases. A slight difference in the band gap energy among the four samples is due to their particle size and particle dispersion state. Xian et al. This fitting result further confirms the tendency that as the hydrothermal temperature increases, particle size of the as-synthesized SrTiO3 sample will decrease firstly and then increase, which is in accordance to the calculated results by Scherrer formula.
As shown in Fig. However, under the light irradiation, the photocurrent density increases dramatically. The STO photocatalyst shows the highest photocurrent intensity of the four samples, suggesting that the ST possesses the highest photocatalytic activity. This result indicates that the sample and 0.
The photodegradation rate STO exhibits the optimum photocatalytic activity due to its finer and homogeneous particle size as well as the greater specific surface area i. Figure 7 b shows the absorbance of MO solution as a function of light irradiation duration.
Clearly, the MO solution becomes colorless within min of irradiation. Meanwhile, the characteristic absorbance of MO appears a blue shift as the irradiation duration increases, indicating that MO is degraded absolutely in the presence of photocatalyst STO instead of physical mechanical adsorption . The photocatalytic degradation of MO follows the first-order kinetic model because the regression coefficients R2 are greater than 0.J Solid State Chem , The high photocatalytic performance of ST was mainly attributed to the more homogeneous and minimum nanoparticle size, the highest surface area, and the maximum light absorption property among the four different samples. As the temperature further increases to C , clear edges of the irregular growing particles appear and their sizes are apparently greater than that of the matrix particles, resulting in a heterogeneous microstructure see Fig. Effects of H2O2 concentrations, solvent quantity and dissolving temperature were investigated in detail. In order to investigate the influence of hydrothermal synthesis temperature on the properties i. Basis on the signal factor test, an orthogonal experiment L9 3 4 was applied to optimize the research preparation conditions. The rest of the body of the paper will assistance will be glad to make a best argumentative my life. Shi, and G. On the contrary, success is about recognizing your weaknesses and accepting synthesis from people who genuinely want Dreadful accident essays about education papers including discussing research papers as a genre, choosing.
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Solid State Sci , 85— Li, L. The cubic particles contained A facile preparation of dual-phase nitrogen-doped TiO2—SrTiO3 macroporous monolithic photocatalyst for organic dye photodegradation under visible light.
Its wear resistance and hardness have been improved obviously. Google Scholar  J. Mater Res Bull , — The cubic particles contained Template synthesis of single-crystal-like porous SrTiO3 nanocube assemblies and their enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen evolution. Clearly, all the samples display the similar optical absorption at nm, which is assigned to the intrinsic band gap adsorption of SrTiO3.
In the end of every experimental run, an appropriate concentrated MO solution 3 x M was injected into the reactor to reach the original concentration and volume as the first cycle. Xu et al. Zheng, Z. This article is published with open access at Springerlink. J Mater Chem , —
Bifunctional-nanotemplate assisted synthesis of nanoporous SrTiO3 photocatalysts toward efficient degradation of organic pollutant. In order to investigate the influence of hydrothermal synthesis temperature on the properties i.
Template synthesis of single-crystal-like porous SrTiO3 nanocube assemblies and their enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen evolution. J Am Ceram Soc , After min of adsorption and min of photocatalytic process, the next experiment cycle began.
We investigated a traditional sol-gel SG and an hydrothermal HY approach to obtain titanium dioxide powders. Porous SrTiO3 spheres with enhanced photocatalytic performance. This work presented an applicable and facile method to fabricate a highly active and stable SrTiO3 photocatalyst for organic pollutant degradation. Photophysical and photocatalytic properties of SrTiO3 doped with Cr cations on different sites. Chem Eng J , —
The photodegradation rate STO exhibits the optimum photocatalytic activity due to its finer and homogeneous particle size as well as the greater specific surface area i. Huang et al. However, the average particle size increased when the anatase-TiO2 content decreased. We investigated a traditional sol-gel SG and an hydrothermal HY approach to obtain titanium dioxide powders. Template synthesis of single-crystal-like porous SrTiO3 nanocube assemblies and their enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen evolution.