The photon energy of light such. The ultraviolet energy produces charge separation in the anatase form of TiO 2, which then produces active oxygen AO and free electrons. The free electrons are then subsequently electrically conducted away due to the semiconducting properties of anatase.
Alternatively, other suitable light absorbent materials can also be used in the present invention at various wavelengths provided that the energy is sufficient to generate active oxygen. Furthermore, in the artificial lung of the present invention, carbon dioxide may also be removed by means of a series of carbon molecule building reactions from the environment. Consequently, the apparatus of the present invention produces oxygen directly from an aqueous solution.
At the same time, the apparatus also utilizes the hydrogen ions produced from the aqueous solution, to remove the carbon dioxide to a Carbonatfeststoff such.
Hexosezucker zu erzeugen. Disproportionierung: wherein H 2 O 2 is used to represent the intermediate "active oxygen" disproportionation. Furthermore, the hydrogen ions generated flow from the anode compartment to the cathode compartment. They react with carbon dioxide and other compositions to form solid, higher carbon materials. In an additional aspect, the present invention further provides a method for delivering oxygen to an enclosed or restricted environment.
The method comprises moving an aqueous solution such. As an electrolyte solution into a photolytic cell wherein light is utilized by a light-activated catalyst to produce oxygen from water and moving the oxygen generated out of the photolytic cell into the enclosed environment. The free hydrogen ions generated by this process may optionally be used to convert carbon dioxide into a Carbonatfeststoff.
In a further aspect, the present invention relates to the direct photolytic conversion of water to liquid phase oxygen dissolved oxygen to a corresponding removal of carbon dioxide.
A test flow cell is provided that 2 anatase , and MnO 2 comprises a conductive coating of vacuum deposited titanium metal Ti metal , adherent TiO, which is applied as a laminate on a glass substrate. UV laser light with a long wavelength low energy , which is directed to the transparent glass substrate, introduced reproducibly for generating H 2 O 2, an active form of oxygen active oxygen , which is then dissolved by the catalytic action of MnO 2 in oxygen was converted.
Oxygen gas is then extracted from the dissolved oxygen through an oxygen gas separator and collected or passed in a closed or restricted life environment. In addition, carbon dioxide that is present in the closed or restricted living environment is removed by the carbon dioxide is brought into contact with other carbon sources and catalysts to the reaction to form Carbonatfeststoffe.
Based on these results and others, the photolytic cell or module may be used photolytic using multiple parallel photolytic surfaces to improve O 2 yield and CO 2 -removal. Diese und weitere Aufgaben und Merkmale der Erfindung werden aus den nachstehend dargelegten Beschreibungen ersichtlich. These and other objects and features of the invention will be apparent from the descriptions set forth below.
The present invention will be more fully understood from the detailed description given below, the claims and the accompanying drawings. The specification and drawings are provided for illustration only and do not limit the present invention accordingly. In general, the present invention is directed to a photolytically driven electrochemical PDEC oxygenator and carbon dioxide removal apparatus.
The device can be used to control the environment in a closed or restricted volume in order to make the volume to humans, animals and aerobic microorganisms habitable. The apparatus achieves a gas balance weight, which is typical of what is necessary for humans, animals or aerobic microorganisms in at least a portion of the enclosed volume. The photolytically driven electrochemical PDEC oxygenator and carbon dioxide removal apparatus includes a photo-electrochemical cell or photolytic cell that in part operates similar to the photosynthesis process that takes place in green plants.
Die photolytische Oxygenatorvorrichtung verwendet die photolytische Energie, um die Sauerstofferzeugung aus Wasser anzutreiben. The photolytic oxygenator uses photolytic energy to drive oxygen generation from water. Der Sauerstoff wird dann an das geschlossene Volumen freigesetzt. The oxygen is then released to the closed volume.
The photolytic cell also converts carbon dioxide to a C 6 sugar-type compound from the order that can be stored as a solid, gel or liquid, and which then fixes the CO 2 thereby removing it from the closed space.
Diese Verbindung vom Zuckertyp kann wahlweise in Form einer Nahrungsmittel- oder Energiequelle recycelt werden. The diameter of the porphyrin ring of the chlorophyll molecule is about 1. Ein Chloroplast hat die Funktion, elektro-magnetische Energie der Sonnenstrahlung in Form chemischer Energie stofflich zu speichern.
A chloroplast has to store the function of electro-magnetic energy of the solar radiation in the form of chemical energy material.
Der Prozess wird als Photosynthese bezeichnet und besteht darin, die beiden Edukte Wasser und Kohlendioxid aus der Luft innerhalb der molekularen Struktur der Qantosomen in einer Folge miteinander gekoppelter Lichtund Dunkelraktionen in die beiden Produkte Sauerstoff und Kohlenhydrat umzuwandeln.
The process is known as photosynthesis and is to convert the two starting materials water and carbon dioxide from air within the molecular structure of Qantosomen in a succession mutually coupled light and Dunkelraktionen in the two products oxygen and carbohydrate.
Details are still only explored part because of the very complex precedent. Die Quantenenergie findet sich zum Teil in Form der freien Reaktionsenthal pie igR " llo kJ der Reaktion a wieder; sie kann abgerufen und beispielsweise zur Arbeitsleistung verwendet werden, wenn die Reaktion in umgekehrter Richtung eingeleitet wird. Die Reaktion lauft dann unter Energieabgabe, beispielsweise unter Arbeitsleistung exergonisch, das bedeutet freiwillig ab.
For photosynthesis 8 photons of different energy and hence a different wavelength in the visible spectrum of the solar radiation of between about 80 nm and nm are required, because it provides a endergonic, which means are non-frciwilligen process. The quantum energy can be found partly in the form of free Reaktionsenthal pie IGR "llo kJ of reaction a again, and they can be retrieved and be used for example to perform work, when the reaction in the reverse direction is introduced the reaction then run while releasing energy, such as performing work exergonic, which means voluntarily from..
Many biological systems were originally a model for technical systems, particularly in the fields of energy conversion, the trans port engineering, chemical engineering, information transmission and processing.
It is understood that technical prototypes had to be extremely primitive approximations in terms of structure and function necessary for creating a successful prototype it was to reduce the multiple and complex functions of the biological model extent until it was possible with the available technical means to build up the required functions for the remaining structure reliable.
Die Technik hat im wesentlichen andere Werkstoffe und Fertigungsmetho den entwickelt als sie bei biologischen Systemen anzutreffen sind.
The technique has substantially developed other materials and the Fertigungsmetho as they are encountered in biological systems. This could often extended by orders of magnitude the operating conditions of the technical replicas of biological models, for example in terms of pressure and temperature, current and magnetic field, the systems are even increased in terms of performance and dimensions.
As a result, the dimensions of the smallest func tional units of technical systems motors, airplanes, computers are in the range between 1 m and loo m. Towards smaller dimensions and larger numbers involved in integrating smallest functional units. Microelectronics shows that here the smallest functional units that can reach -2 th dimensions of looo nm and integration densities of lo mm. Structures for electron transport and charge separation represent almost molecular regions, one thinks of the thickness of the space charge zones of 30 nm.
Similar to decompose to water by visible light into hydrogen and oxygen, are ultimately attempts to replicate the process of biological photosynthesis with present technical means. The development in this field is the basis of some example can the prior art does not reflect fully represented: - The system for technical photosynthesis with the simplest structure is a combination of arselle IIalbleiter sol and electrolysis cell. The photo-electrochemical cell Gerischer etc.
Bei Bestrahlung mit Quanten ausreichend hoher Energie bilden sich im Upon irradiation with quantum sufficient high energy form in the Halbleiter Elektron-Loch-Paare, die sich separieren und eine Spannung aufbauen.
Semiconductor electron-hole pairs which separate and build up a voltage. Also present is at least one temperature sensor, which enables temperature control of the irradiated medium.
The inventive apparatus further comprises means for promoting medium to be irradiated through the irradiation zone. Through this funding, the flow rate and hence the residence time of the medium in the irradiation zone can be adjusted. In combination with a variable radiation intensity, the radiation dose of the medium to be irradiated can thus be accurately adjusted. As a means of promoting, for example, a pump peristaltic or centrifugal pumps may be used. Preferably, the inventive device further comprises a detector for measuring the radiation intensity.
The detector detects the intensity of radiation either directly or a related size. Als Detektor eignet sich beispielsweise eine Photodiode oder ein Phototransistor, die einfallende elektromagnetische Strahlung in ein elektrisches Signal umwandeln. As a detector, for example a photodiode or a phototransistor, the incident electromagnetic radiation into an electrical signal is converted.
The detector has to be positioned so that a representative as possible detection of the radiation is ensured. Bevorzugt erfolgt die Anbringung daher seitlich an der transparenten Abdeckung, so dass Streulicht, das in der Abdeckung propagiert, detektiert wird, besonders bevorzugt aber direkt neben jeder einzelnen Strahlenquelle oder neben Gruppen von Strahlenquellen. In LEDs, for example, in each light-emitting diode housing, a photodiode can be accommodated.
For optimum control and registration of radiation intensity is guaranteed. In addition, the measurement of the actual current flow through each light emitting diode or group of diodes permitting control of the radiation intensity, if fluctuations in the intensity of radiation are known as a result of the aging process or other variations of the light emitting diodes and are taken into account.
The device can be used for a variety of photochemical processes. Sie kann kontinuierlich, im Batch- oder Semi-Batch-Verfahren betrieben werden. It can be operated continuously, in batch or semi-batch process.
Surprisingly it was found, that the inventive device can be used for the cultivation of photosynthetic operated cells and microorganisms. In particular, it was surprising that the cultivation of photosynthetic operated cells and microorganisms in the inventive device can be reproduced at a scale under conditions feasible, which are very similar to those prevailing in large technical equipment conditions. This results in a transfer of the results from the inventive device to a larger production scale is possible.
Here, for example, light post, temperature, flow rate, gas exchange and nutrients can change on a small scale in order to identify optimal culture conditions without wasting large amounts of material. Durch das Anlagenkonzept wird eine Skalierbarkeit der Ergebnisse erreicht.
Through the system concept scalability of results is achieved. In particular, the inventive use of the device for the cultivation of photosynthetic microorganisms operated cells and allowed to produce starter cultures for large systems, these starter cultures are better adapted to the conditions of the large plants as cultures from z.
The starter cultures used, if required under gradual increase, to inoculate large-scale plants. Die Bestrahlungszone ist vorzugsweise dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass das Volumen der Bestrahlungszone mindestens dem 0,5-fachen des Vorrichtungsvolumens entspricht. The irradiation zone is preferably characterized in that the volume of the irradiation zone is at least 0. As a radiation source emitting diodes are preferably used, which are preferably arranged in one or two planar surfaces and are aligned parallel to the irradiation zone.
The number of channels in the irradiation zone is preferably one or two. For more than two channels, it can come in individual channels as a result of the frequently observed in cell suspensions deposits at different flow rates and thus different irradiation times.
Bevorzugt werden Peristaltik-, Kolben- oder Kreiselpumpen eingesetzt, wobei diese vorzugsweise kleine Pumpenvolumina und niedrige Drehzahlen aufweisen. Peristaltic, piston, or centrifugal pumps are preferably used, which preferably small pump volumes and low speeds have.
Studies have shown that the culture result can be affected by an automated control of the speed of the pump in the course of cultivation as favorable as the targeted tracking of the radiation intensity. Der optimale Ablauf einer Kultivierung wird nach einer Versuchsphase zur Ermittlung der optimalen Parameter durch die eingesetzte Automatisierungstechnik reproduzierbar eingehalten. The optimum sequence of a culture is maintained reproducibly after a test phase for determining the optimum parameters used by the automation technology.
Preferably grouted the apparatus via a gas supply and gas exhaust, to supply the cells or microorganisms with gaseous nutrients and to dispose of gaseous metabolic products. Preferably, the gas is supplied directly in the inlet of the irradiation zone by means of a nozzle having a diameter in the range of 10 microns to microns, so that fine gas bubbles having diameters of less than 1 mm pass through the irradiation zone of the photobioreactor.
In this case, a large interfacial area and thus a more effective mass transfer between gas and liquid is made possible to allow, for example, the introduction of as much CO 2 in a cell suspension, and the discharge of the oxygen formed during photosynthesis. The arrangement with gas injection may also be for conducting photochemical reactions using gases such. Photohalogenierungen oder Photooxidationen eingesetzt werden.
Photo halogenation or photooxidation can be used. A photobioreactor used in the invention preferably further includes sensors for measurement of pH, temperature, pressure, and optical monitoring, pump and valve equipment, piping, equipment for data acquisition and process automation.
Es ist zu beachten, dass der Anlagenteil, der i. It should be noted that the plant part that i. The invention is described below with reference to examples, without being limited thereto. Schematic representations of arrangements of the patterned stacked plates with transparent cover and radiation sources that are irradiated from one side. Schematic representations of arrangements of the patterned stacked plates with transparent cover and radiation sources that are irradiated from two sides.
Schematic representation of a meandering channel having tapers at the deflection points, in which the flow of the medium indicated by arrows gas bubbles migrate through the irradiation zone. The apparatus comprises a radiation zone and a peripheral devices connected with pump and valve technology, various sensors for pH, pressure, temperature monitoring, and for the optical detection of light absorption and scattering, tempering, pipelines and Prozessleiteinrichtung for automation.
In addition to the energy exchange of the mass transfer plays an important variable, in particular the CO 2 entry, the oxygen discharge, the nutrient supply and possibly the removal of toxic metabolites. The gas feed is accomplished through fine nozzles in the entrance of the irradiation zone. Feine Gasblasen mit Durchmessern unter 1 mm werden am Eingang der Bestrahlungszone erzeugt und wandern durch die Bestrahlungszone.
Fine gas bubbles having diameters below 1 mm are generated at the input of the irradiation zone and travel through the irradiation zone. This depends on the coordination of the flow rate of liquid and gas phases to ensure transport of the gas bubbles through the device, particularly through the irradiation chamber and to reduce coalescence.
Coalescence leads to increased gas bubbles to reduced interface between gas and liquid and thus to a deteriorated substance exchange. After the output of the irradiation zone, there is a balancing vessel which is used for the separation of gas and liquid. The separated gas here can also be used for re-injection, as long as the oxygen content is not too high.A test flow cell is provided that 2 anatase , and MnO 2 comprises a conductive coating of vacuum deposited titanium metal Ti metal , adherent TiO, which is applied as a laminate on a glass substrate. They should be simple to use and inexpensive. Modulation of liposome matrix by cholesterol for efficient localization of photosensitizer. The conditions in conventional plants for photochemical reactions result, for example, often means that only low concentrations of reactants can be used. By the irradiation of electromagnetic radiation from artificial sources or in the form of sunlight, cells or microorganisms which carry out photosynthesis, cultured. However, this material is hazardous due to the fact that it is a corrosive fine powder. Es hat sich als vorteilhaft herausgestellt, die Kulturen dann zu ernten, wenn eine bestimmte Zellzahldichte oder Farbstoffkonzentration erreicht und vorzugsweise durch die eingesetzten Sensoren angezeigt wurde. The apparatus comprises a photo-electrochemical cell "photolytic cell" or "photolytic module" that operates process to the photosynthesis process processes, comprising at least an irradiation zone, a source. Physics lab report on conservation of energy the early s, the notion of the death a topic for a critical thinking essay on your much are is to MBA photosynthesis even thus and.
Plato C. Photolysis of this oxide results in the generation of active oxygen in a manner which is considerably longer than the photosynthetic pigments ie, chlorophylls.
It is photolytically irradiated to form hydrogen ions, hydrogen peroxide or other forms of oxygen gas precursor active oxygen, "AO" and electrons by the absorption of one or more quanta of electromagnetic radiation from water. The reason is the market demand to develop new products and improved processes in ever shorter times. Blakemore, Navaneetha K. Alternative sources such as excimer lamps in particular, which can be prepared in many different dimensions, or metal halide lamps can also be used, but show due to the radiation, which often requires an additional reflector, not quite as high energy efficiency, such as light emitting diodes. Artificial photosynthesis: water cleavage into hydrogen and oxygen by visible light. Here, for example, light post, temperature, flow rate, gas exchange and nutrients can change on a small scale in order to identify optimal culture conditions without wasting large amounts of material.
Transmembrane reduction of methylviologen by ascorbate photosensitized by bacteriopheophytin a in liposomes. Therefore, the webs between the channels are preferably designed so that as little medium is conducted in poorly lit or unlit spaces. Competitive oxygen kinetic isotope effects expose O? The object of the present invention is to do this an additional step and to provide a more saie structure at the molecular level on the basis of the molten semiconducting alkali ion crystal, in which the entire reac can be performed tion follow. A photobioreactor used in the invention preferably further includes sensors for measurement of pH, temperature, pressure, and optical monitoring, pump and valve equipment, piping, equipment for data acquisition and process automation.
The cover is adapted so that it has sufficient transparency to the radiation used.
Photochemische Reaktionen kommen unter anderem bei der technischen Synthese von chemischen Verbindungen z. This can be tracked online, but also be checked with the help of absorption spectroscopic measurements of the dye content on the one hand the growth. Schematic representations of arrangements of the patterned stacked plates with transparent cover and radiation sources that are irradiated from two sides. Die photolytische Zelle entfernt auch Kohlendioxid aus der Umgebung und wandelt es in einen Carbonatfeststoff im Katodenfach um. As a broad perspective Viewing the present invention includes the following system components: 1 a sensitive and complex aqueous phase, 2 photolytic energy to provide "charge separation" in a thin film, 3 electrical energy of the electrons of the photolytic reaction the "charge separation" is generated, 4 chemical reactions driven by the photochemistry, ie DO generation, and 5 the removal of CO 2 through the generation of Carbonatfeststoffen. The quanto Omen have dimensions of about 10 nm and express the molecular structure of the micro-paracrystalline thylakoids, which is formed by regularly arranged molecules of chlorophyll and other pigments.
Die gesuchte Vorrichtung soll sowohl kontinuierlich als auch im Batchbetrieb zu betreiben sein. It should be noted that the plant part that i. Fate,, Solomon B. Also present is at least one temperature sensor, which enables temperature control of the irradiated medium. The large ratio of surface to volume can also be used to significantly improve the radiation transport in a reaction solution over conventional photochemical apparatus.
This can achieve with minimal pressure loss, a simple adjustment to the beam characteristics of the radiation source.
In a preferred embodiment, the irradiation zone comprises a planar reaction zone plate in which the channels are incorporated with microfabrication manufacturing methods. Moore, Ana L. Kamat, and, Pushpito K. This is justified by the improved utilization of radiation and reduced shadowing effects.
The photolytic cell also removes carbon dioxide from the environment and converts it to a Carbonatfeststoff in the cathode compartment. A localized electron represents a new photo system that can absorb energy.
Bei Bestrahlung mit Quanten ausreichend hoher Energie bilden sich im Upon irradiation with quantum sufficient high energy form in the Halbleiter Elektron-Loch-Paare, die sich separieren und eine Spannung aufbauen. Die photolytische Zelle entfernt auch Kohlendioxid aus der Umgebung und wandelt es in einen Carbonatfeststoff im Katodenfach um. A chloroplast has to store the function of electro-magnetic energy of the solar radiation in the form of chemical energy material. EP Process and arrangement for carrying out the process for the photochemical cleavage of water and reduction of nitrogen from the atmosphere using a structure of molecular dimensions Expired EPB1 en Priority Applications 1.
Diffusionsschichten werden durch die Verwendung der Elektronenleitung zu und vom photolytischen Ort durch photolytische Transparenz und durch elektrochemische Leitung minimiert.
In particular, should the radiation dose experienced by the irradiated medium, be adjustable. Here, for example, light post, temperature, flow rate, gas exchange and nutrients can change on a small scale in order to identify optimal culture conditions without wasting large amounts of material. The supply of the N2 is done as described by diffusion.